JOURNAL PRESTIGE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
1. BackgroundDependable prestige measurement criteria will serve four purposes:
- to create such a “recognition and reward ecosystem” where “high quality research” is rewarded and promoted;
- to help HEC, funding agencies and Policy makers to objectively evaluate the prestige of a journal, in a given subject area, and make informed decisions about the prestige of journals where faculty members typically publish;
- to recognize, with high degree of accuracy within the community of researchers, those researchers who aim for the prestigious journals because they are doing world class research;
- finally, it shall act as a policy instrument to distinguish “quality-centric researchers” from the herd;
2. ObjectiveThe prestige measurement criteria should consist of a number of publically available measures and these measures should be (as much as possible) subject or domain independent. The criteria should make provisions for a global rank, a relative rank within a Subject Area and Subject Category.
3. Journal Prestige Measurement System
In this concept paper, for the sake of brevity, technical details of the measures will be omitted. The measures will be introduced at an intuitive level so that a reader can comprehend the motivation to use them. The measures are selected from a seminal paper by Bollen et al titled “A principle component analysis of 39 scientific impact measures” is available at arXiv Cornell publishing website (see Bollen J, Van de Sompel H, Hagberg A, Chute R, 2009 A Principal Component Analysis of 39 Scientific Impact Measures. PLoS ONE 4(6): e6022.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006022). The paper introduces 39 measures and we have selected only 6 from them that are most influential and are publically available. We now introduce our Journal Prestige Measurement System (JPMS).
Definition 1 [Eligible Journal].
A Journal is eligible to be considered for ranking in JPMS if and only if it: (1) is indexed by Thomson Web of Science or an index (including Scopus) that is recognized by HEC from time to time; and (2) has been assigned an Impact Factor by the indexing agency.
We will take 2 measures from the seminal Eigenfactor Project™ that is a non-commercial academic research project sponsored by the Bergstrom Lab at the University of Washington [see http://www.eigenfactor.org].
Definition 2[Eigen Factor (EFT)].
The Eigenfactor™ [EGF] score of a journal is an estimate of the percentage of time that library users spend with that journal. This factor measures the prestige of a Journal because with a prestigious journal, researchers will spend more time. We will display its raw value (EGFRaw) and the percentile value (EGFp).
Definition 3 [Article Influence (AIF)].
The Article Influence Score™ (AIF) for each journal is a measure of the per-article citation influence of the journal. This tells us that how much the articles of a journal have influenced the knowledge in a given subject area. We will display its raw value (AIFRaw) and the percentile value (AIFp)
Definition 4 [Scimago Journal Rank (SJR)].
The SJR indicator measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal; it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is and adapts Google Page Rank to measure it. We will display its raw value (SJRRaw) and the percentile value (SJRp)
Definition 5 [H-index (H-Index)].
The H-index is a prestigious measure to determine the quality and quantity of research produced by a researcher, Journal and an institute. If H articles of a Journal are cited at least H times each and the remaining articles are not cited more than H times, then H will be the H-index of a Journal. We will display its raw value (HIRaw) and the percentile value (HIp)
Definition 6[Cites per Doc (CD2)].
Cites per Doc in last 2 years measures the scientific impact of an average article published in the journal, it is computed using the same formula that journal impact factor ™ (Thomson Reuters). We will display its raw value (CD2Raw) and the percentile value (CD2p).
Definition 7[Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP)].
This indicator measures the average citation impact of the publications of a journal. Unlike the well-known journal impact factor, SNIP corrects for differences in citation practices between scientific fields, thereby allowing for more accurate between-field comparisons of citation impact. This measure is proposed by well-known CWTS Journal Indictors Project [http://www.journalindicators.com]. We will display the raw value (SNIPRaw) and the percentile value (SNIPp).
The 6 measures described above are publicly available from prestigious projects for journals of knowledge domains.
Definition 8 [Publication Fee].
Most Journals charge a publication fee of $500 to $1500 to cover the cost of publication in a Journal. Many universities fund the publication cost for Journals from their R & D Fund.
Definition 9 [Free Journals].
Some publishers do not charge the publication fee from the authors and hence a researcher can publish a paper in these Journals free of charge.
Definition 10 [Total Journal Prestige (TJS] Rank].The TJS is a weighted measure to understand an overall impact that a journal has made on an area in terms of its Eigen Factor, Article Influence, Scimago Journal Rank, H-index, Impact Factor and Source Normalized Impact per Paper:
TJS=w1×(EFT)p+w2× (AIF)p+ w3×(SJR)p+ w4×(HI)p + w5×(CD2)p+ w6×(SNIP)p
In order to avoid any bias towards any metric, we intend to use w1 = w2 = w3 = w4 = w5 = w6 = (1/6). If a factor is not available, then its default value is Zero (0).
Definition 11 [Journal Prestige Stability (JPS) Rank].
The JPS is an important measure that provides a useful insight about the stability of the overall rank of a journal by analyzing its relative prestige indicated by each individual factor:. (EGF)p, (AIP)p, (SJR)p, (HI)p, (CD)p and (SNIP)p. JPS is defined as following:
JPS=(〖(EFT)p × (AIF)p × (SJR)p × (HI)p × (CD2)p × (SNIP)p )〗^(1/6)
If a factor is not available, then its default value is One (01).
Definition 12 [Journal Prestige Index (JPI) Rank].
JPI takes into account TJS and JPS and provides a final measure of the prestige of Journal by taking the Arithmetic-Geometric Mean (AGM) of TJS and JPS ranks:
JPI = AGM(TJS, JPS)
Definition 13 [Journal Prestige Measurement System].
On the basis of JPI Rank, 6 categories of Journals are recommended to be adopted at HEC.
- Platinum: A journal is ranked as Platinum if it value of JPI Rank is 90 or above;
- Gold Journal. A journal is ranked as Gold if the value of JPI Rank is 80 or above and less than 90 (80 ≤ JPI Rank < 90)
- Silver Journal.A journal is ranked as Silver if the value of JPI Rank is 70 or above and less than 80 (70 ≤ JPI Rank < 80).
- Bronze Journal. A journal is ranked as Bronze if the value of JPI Rank is 60 or above and less than 70 (60 ≤ JPI Rank < 70).
- Honorable Mention. A journal is ranked as Honorable Mention if the value of JPI Rank is 45 or above and less than 60 (45 ≤ JPI Rank < 60).
- Satisfactory Mention. A journal is ranked as Satisfactory Mention if the value of JPI Rank is 30 or above and less than 45 (30 ≤ JPI Rank < 45).
Using the above-mentioned JPMS System, a journal may be ranked Silver globally, but within Computer Science it might be Gold and within Artificial Intelligence it might be Platinum. Using these three ranks, a better profile of a researcher or a University might be created for macro ranking and micro ranking within a subject area and subject category. Even in Global ranking, the extreme bias, introduced due to the Impact Factor in certain fields, is expected to be significantly normalized that will give an equal chance to all researchers to preferably target the most prestigious journal in their subject area, without any adverse consequences, that also enjoys a best global rank. For example Nature might have FJS of 100.0 and IEEE Transactions PAMI might have 99.5. In comparison, Nature has more than 30.0 impact factors; while PAMI has more than 4.5 only. JPMS might put journals in the Platinum category and hence we will be able to reward quality-aware researchers in the same manner.